Big Spring Creek is a five-mile-long tributary of Conodoguinet Creek in Cumberland County. It is formed by the fifth largest spring in Pennsylvania with a median flow of 18 million gallons a day. The headwaters are near U.S.
The township of Middlesex lies along the northerly half of the west side of the Stony (“Stoney”) Ridge, a geological trap dike (older than the North or South mountains) which formed the original boundary between the west and east divisions of Pennsborough Township (established in 1735) as early a
Mifflin Township was named in honor of Thomas Mifflin, a colonial leader during the years of the American Revolution who became the first governor of Pennsylvania. His name was given to many places in the state, including Mifflin Townships in Lycoming County, Dauphin County, and Columbia County.
The town of Newville lodges in the northwest corner of Cumberland County.1 The first settler, Andrew Ralston, arrived in 1728.2 The town was founded by Scots-Irish when the Big Spring Presbyterian Church, which dates to 1737, sold lots from its 89 acres in 1790.
North and South Middleton Townships received a charter of incorporation in 1810 dividing what was originally Middleton Township.1 This area in the twenty-first century is composed of residential and commercial interests and a few farms.
Newton Township first appeared in Cumberland county tax records in 1773 although it was organized by 1767. In 1929, Newton divided into North Newton and South Newton Townships. The early settlers in the area were Scots-Irish but German families began to move in toward the end of the 18th century. By the time the township had formed, most of the land had been taken up and the area had a settled population.
The recorded history of West Pennsboro Township began in 1735 when it was part of Pennsborough, one of two original townships in the North Valley. This preceded the formation of the county by fifteen years. By 1745, Pennsborough had divided into East and West Pennsboro. In the following years, the township boundaries changed as the population increased and the townships subdivided even more.